The World Bank has warned that climate change could push tens of millions of people in the developing world to migrate both inside and outside their own countries.

The Bank analysed the impact of ‘slow-onset’ climate change and migratory patterns in three developing regions in the world: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. These slow impacts included water stress, crop failure and the rise in sea levels, which could cause inhabitants to move to more viable areas in order to make a living.

Analysts stated that unless urgent action is taken to mitigate against climate change and develop strong development policies in response, these regions could see 143 million new climate migrants. The focus on slow-onset impacts rather than higher ones, such as hurricanes and floods, also means the estimate is at the low end. However, concerted efforts to make these regions more climate resilient could reduce this figure by up to 80 percent.

The Bank’s modelling of the demographics, economies and climate susceptibility of these regions helped identify certain hotspots for migration. For example, within East Africa a high level of migration was expected from bodies of water, such as Lake Victoria, which currently sustains millions of livelihoods.

The World Bank’s Chief Executive Officer, Kristalina Georgieva, commented: “We have a small window now, before the effects of climate change deepen, to prepare the ground for this new reality”

“Steps cities take to cope with the upward trend of arrivals from rural areas and to improve opportunities for education, training and jobs will pay long-term dividends. It’s also important to help people make good decisions about whether to stay where they are or move to new locations where they are less vulnerable”.

As a result of its findings, the Bank recommends cutting global greenhouse gas emissions to reduce the scale of the problem; transforming development planning to focus more on climate migration, and greater investment in data to better understand the issue.

“Without the right planning and support, people migrating from rural areas into cities could be facing new and even more dangerous risks,” said the report’s team lead Kanta Kumari Rigaud. “We could see increased tensions and conflict as a result of pressure on scarce resources. But that doesn’t have to be the future. While internal climate migration is becoming a reality, it won’t be a crisis if we plan for it now”.

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A major new report for the UK Government has highlighted the huge economic potential presented by the world’s oceans.

But it also warns that environmental threats, such as plastic waste and ocean acidification, need to be tackled or its economic value will be lost.

The Foresight Future of the Sea report, published by the UK’s Government Office for Science sees a number of key areas where the oceans can provide opportunities. These include the need to collaborate on fighting climate change, greater use of innovative technologies, such as autonomous vehicles, and improving our understanding of the sea.

The authors point out that the potential economic value of the ocean economy is set to double in the next 12 years to reach an estimated $3 trillion. However, our lack of understand of the oceans, and lack of co-ordination on addressing its threats, put these benefits in jeopardy.  

Humans are increasing their reliance on the world’s oceans, partly due to a growing global population, and the exploitation of offshore energy resources, fishing, and seabed mining. These activities, combined with climate change “will compound declining fish stocks, coastal infrastructure, and other economic activities that rely on a healthy and resilient marine environment”, says the report.

The amount of plastics in the ocean is also estimated to treble up to 2025 and ocean warming could increase to 3.2 degrees by the end of the century, depending on how quickly the world reduces its carbon emissions.

It’s precisely within this context that the authors see an opportunity to utilise advancements in science and technology to help coordinate efforts and reduce impacts through growing our understanding.

Increases in data collection, for example, projected to rise 40-fold by 2020, and the development of new autonomous vehicles can help us address these threats. Autonomy is “likely to be the single most important marine technological development”, say the authors, as we increase our reliance on remotely operated vehicles and satellites.

With this increase comes the opportunity to better understand the activities of marine life, reduce pollution and improve decision-making.

Foreign and Commonwealth Office minister Lord Ahmad of Wimbledon commented on its findings: “Both the opportunities and the challenges set out in this important report are global in scale and demand our urgent attention.

“We must keep pushing our scientific understanding of the oceans, harness new technologies, and support commercial innovation. Most of all, we must ensure that governments keep pace with this changing environment. International collaboration remains crucial in order to realise the fullest benefits of our marine industries and scientists, for the UK and the world”.

Read more: Ocean economy set to reach $3 trillion by 2030

Multinational corporations are fast making the change to a zero-carbon future, and McDonald’s has decided to play a lead role in its adoption.

The company announced today plans to reduce its overall greenhouse gas emissions by 36 percent by 2030, based on a 2015 baseline.

It is also targeting a 31 percent reduction in emissions intensity specifically across its supply chain on the same basis.

McDonald’s estimates that its actions, if successful, will help prevent 150 million metric tonnes of emissions from being emitted into the atmosphere. By some calculations this is the equivalent of removing 32 million cars from the road for an entire year, or planting an astonishing 3.8 billion trees.

The new commitment has been approved by the Science Based Targets Initiative, a campaign designed to help corporations work out how they can cut emissions to keep global temperatures below 2 degrees centigrade.

“To create a better future for our planet, we must all get involved. McDonald’s is doing its part by setting this ambitious goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to address the challenge of global climate change,” said Steve Easterbrook, McDonald’s President and CEO, in a video message.

McDonald’s acknowledges that the bulk of its carbon footprint comes from beef production, energy usage and packaging. And so in order to achieve this ambitious target it aims to implement large-scale efficiency and sustainability improvements across its entire network. These include adopting sustainable packaging, forestry and agriculture methods, uptake of LED lighting and energy efficiency equipment in restaurants.  

The global restaurant chain has already made strides towards transforming the way it does business; earlier this year it announced all its packaging will be sustainable by 2025. This new goal also commits the company to improved measurement systems and annual reporting on its progress.

Fred Krupp, President of the Environmental Defense Fund, which has previously worked with the company on waste reduction, commented: “As one of the best known brands on the planet, McDonald’s is well positioned to lead, and its ambitious new climate target will inspire innovation, collaboration, and most importantly critical greenhouse gas reductions across the company’s global operations and supply chain”.

Carter Roberts, President and CEO of World Wildlife Fund in the United States, also said that “(the) announcement matters because it commits one of the world’s biggest companies to deliver, with the full breadth of their food chain system, significant emissions reductions based on science”.

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The UK’s recent bitter cold snap has had at least one redeeming feature: a bountiful supply of clean electricity.

Official statistics from the National Grid have highlighted how March has seen consecutive wind energy records being set in the country. The culmination of this intense cold weather on Saturday saw 14.3 gigawatts (GW) of electricity being generated for the first time, supplying over one third of Britain’s power needs.

Wind was providing precisely 35.7 percent of Britain’s electricity on Saturday, far ahead of gas on 20.3 percent. Nuclear was providing 17.6 percent and coal 12.9 percent.

The 14 GW record surpasses the previous milestone of 13.8GW set on 1st March. When the cold weather, nicknamed the Beast from the East given its origins in Siberia, was at its height on 2nd March, wind was also top of the generation table, supplying 29.1 percent of power.

Emma Pinchbeck, Executive Director at wind energy trade body RenewableUK, said: “Yet again, wind is playing a key role in keeping Britain going during a cold spell. When the mini Beast from the East struck on Saturday, over a third of the UK’s electricity was being generated by wind.

We’re harnessing a reliable, home-grown source of power which reduces our dependence on imports to maintain the security of our energy supplies”.

The National Grid’s control room tweeted out the news over the weekend

The high levels of renewable generation are also far from a one off. The UK has made extraordinary strides towards increasing its wind power capacity in recent years. 2017 also saw a record 15 percent of all the UK’s electricity coming from wind power alone. All renewables, taking in solar, bioenergy, and hydro, supplied 25 percent.

Photo Credit: Thomas Richter

Read more: Beast from the East helps set new UK wind energy...

New research led by Duke University has found that tougher policies on fossil fuel emissions could prevent up to 153 million premature deaths in the immediate term.

Their work concluded that taking action now, rather than later, to limit warming to 1.5 degrees under the Paris Agreement could have significant health benefits in major metropolitan areas around the world, especially in Asia and Africa.

The study ran computer simulations of future carbon emissions in the Earth’s atmosphere under three different scenarios. These ran the impacts of reductions made over the 21st century with no negative emissions; having higher carbon emissions in the near-term, but still limiting warming to 2 degrees, and finally an accelerated reduction in the near-term which limits warming to 1.5 degrees.

The researchers then worked out the health impacts to pollution exposure under each scenario, focussing on major cities. Leading cities to benefit under the early action scenario were the Indian cities of Kolkata and Dehli, estimated to save over 4 million lives each.

In addition, thirteen cities in Asia and Africa could avoid one million premature deaths, and 80 further urban centres could avoid 100,000 deaths.

40 percent of these lives saved could also happen within the next 40 years.

The study claims to be the first to project the number of lives saved by city, looking at 154 in total of the world’s largest urban areas.

Drew Shindell, a Professor of Earth Sciences at Duke, said: “The lowest-cost approach only looks at how much it will cost to transform the energy sector. It ignores the human cost of more than 150 million lost lives, or the fact that slashing emissions in the near term will reduce long-term climate risk and avoid the need to rely on future carbon dioxide removal”.

“That’s a very risky strategy, like buying something on credit and assuming you’ll someday have a big enough income to pay it all back”, he added. 

Read more: Acting now on carbon emissions could save over...

The world’s largest green bond fund has been launched with the intention of greatly accelerating green finance in emerging markets.

The International Finance Corporation (IFC), part of the World Bank, and Amundi, Europe’s largest asset manager, co-launched the fund last week.

The new pot of money, called Amundi Planet Emerging Green One, attracted a wide range of investors, including the European Investment Bank (EIB) and Crédit Agricole. While it closed at $1.42 billion on Friday, it is expected to deploy $2 billion into emerging markets over its lifetime.

The fund aims to support climate-smart investments and “significantly increase the scale and pace of climate finance in emerging markets”, according to a statement. Proceeds will be used through to 2025 and reinvested every 7 years.

The IFC provided a $256 million start-up commitment, while the European Investment Bank poured in $100 million.

Philippe Le Houérou, IFC CEO commented: “The global market for green bonds has expanded rapidly in recent years—totalling more than $155 billion in 2017, but few banks in developing countries have issued such bonds. IFC and Amundi expect this new fund to encourage more local financial institutions to issue green bonds, by increasing global demand and building local markets.”

While the market for green bonds is still small, estimated to represent just 1 percent of all global bonds issued, it is expected to grow 30 percent this year alone. Some developing countries, such as Nigeria, have also signalled their intention to use green bonds to fund climate adaption and mitigation projects.

Yves Perrier, Amundi CEO said: “This landmark transaction with IFC contributes to Amundi’s innovative and leading role in the climate finance space. Leveraging on Amundi’s emerging market debt investment capabilities, our commitment to ESG, and IFC’s unique outreach in emerging countries, Amundi Planet is a one-of-a-kind example of the potential that public private partnerships can bring to investors and to the society.” 

EIB Vice-President Ambroise Fayolle, added: “This exciting new initiative will transform sustainable investment in countries that are the most vulnerable to climate change, and enable local financial institutions to issue green bonds”.

Alongside the fund, a new technical assistance programme, managed by the IFC, will be created to develop green bond policies and training for bankers.

Read more: $1.4bn launch for world’s largest green bond fund

The UN’s annual World Water Development Report 2018 has highlighted the need to use nature to combat the challenges of a growing population and climate change.

It its detailed analysis, the report demonstrates that demand for water is increasing in developing countries, while simultaneously access is being put at risk by human development and climate change.

Deforestation, intense farming methods and urbanisation are putting these resources under pressure, while climate change is making parts of the world more susceptible to both droughts and flooding. In response, the UN argues that nature has a variety of untapped solutions to help meet these challenges.

“We need new solutions in managing water resources so as to meet emerging challenges to water security caused by population growth and climate change. If we do nothing, some five billion people will be living in areas with poor access to water by 2050. This Report proposes solutions that are based on nature to manage water better. This is a major task all of us need to accomplish together, responsibly so as to avoid water related conflicts,” declared Audrey Azoulay, the Director-General of UNESCO, which worked on the study.

The report makes the case for working with nature to support a “resource-efficient and competitive circular economy”. This mean mimicking natural processes such as soil moisture retention, building large new wetland areas, and restoring floodplains or green roofs.

Incorporating techniques found in natural can have environmental, social and economic benefits and help achieve the vital Sustainable Development Goals into the 2020s, it concludes.

“For too long, the world has turned first to human-built, or “grey”, infrastructure to improve water management. In so doing, it has often brushed aside traditional and Indigenous knowledge that embraces greener approaches. Three years into the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is time for us to re-examine nature-based solutions to help achieve water management objectives”, said Gilbert F. Houngbo, Chair of UN-Water and President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

It’s hoped that a blend of both green and grey investments can increase water efficiency in a cost-effective way.

Photo Credit: Kelly Fike/USFWS

Read more: UN promotes nature-based solutions to tackle...

The UK’s capital is making progress towards reducing high levels of air pollution through the uptake of new electric vehicles and charging points.

Figures released by local government association London Councils have shown that boroughs in the capital plan to install at least 2,630 new charging points over the next year, an increase of 300 percent since the start of 2017.

At the same time, London Mayor, Sadiq Khan, has this week launched a new network of rapid charging points across the city, which will greatly reduce the amount of time needed to refuel electric vehicles.

Over the past six months, Transport for London (TfL) has installed 100 new rapid charging points with a total of 150 planned by the end of 2018. A standard charging point can take hours to recharge a vehicle, whereas the new hubs only take 20-30 minutes.

“The roll-out of rapid charging points marks a big step forward in the shift to zero-emission vehicles, which the capital desperately needs to clean up our toxic air. But widespread change will not happen until a sufficient charging infrastructure is in place, allowing taxi drivers, businesses and Londoners to easily make the switch”, said the Mayor.

The Mayor is also driving forward new initiatives to create zero-emissions zones in the capital, and forcing buses and taxis to become less polluting.

Any new taxi licensed after 1 January 2018 has to be zero-emission capable, and a £42 million fund is available to help retire the dirtiest taxis. This includes two grants of £5,000 and £7,500 towards purchasing cleaner vehicles.

Councillor Julian Bell, Chair of Transport and Environment Committee at London Councils said that “the harmful effects of poor air quality and pollution on our communities are clear and London boroughs are actively responding to this issue”.

“London boroughs are engaging with their communities and developing solutions tailored to local needs. It is essential we continue to do so and take people with us. London Councils will continue to work with our partners in delivering a modern and environmentally sustainable capital city for the future”.

Photo Credit: Diego Martinez

Read more: London aims for the sky with thousands of new...

Swedish energy company Vattenfall has won the right to build a major non-subsidised offshore wind farm in the Netherlands.

The project is one of the first offshore wind farms to ever win a contract without financial support from a government, following a similar auction in Germany last year.

The 700-750 megawatt wind farm, called Hollandse Kust Zuid, will be located 14 miles off the Dutch coast, and cover an area of 137 square miles. Vattenfall estimates it could power up to 1.5 million households upon completion within the next five years.

Dutch Economic Affairs and Climate Minister Eric Wiebes said: “Thanks to drastically lower costs, offshore wind farms are now being constructed without subsidy.

“This allows us to keep the energy transition affordable. Innovation and competition are making sustainable energy cheaper and cheaper, and much faster than expected too.”

Technological developments and government support have helped offshore wind dramatically reduce its cost in recent years. Different European countries, notably Germany and the UK, have been competing to build new projects at as low a price as possible.

The latest Dutch auction is the third in five rounds intended to increase the amount of offshore wind power to 4,500 megawatts by 2023.

Magnus Hall, Vattenfall's President and CEO, said: "This is excellent news for Vattenfall and the Netherlands. It is a significant step for us in view of our ambitions to grow in renewable energy production. We have previously announced that we intend to invest €1.5 billion in growth investments in wind power for the period 2017-2018”.

Offshore wind is seen as a key technology to grow the percentage of renewable energy in the country. The Netherlands sits near the bottom of the EU table for progress in renewables. A government review last year concluded that it is on course to miss its 2020 target to source 14 percent of its energy from renewable sources.

Photo Credit: Nuon

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London’s reputation as a leading financial centre has now extended to include the field of sustainability.

A new Global Green Finance Index (GGFI) has found the city as the top destination for green finance, leading in both the categories of ‘penetration’ and ‘quality’.

The Index, launched by think tanks Z/Yen and Finance Watch, was compiled using survey data from finance professionals and over 100 relevant instrumental factors. These included human capital, infrastructure, legal, and policy factors.

It found that Western Europe scored the highest, featuring nine of the top 10 centres for quality of its green finance offering, and seven of the top 10 for penetration.

Amsterdam, Luxembourg, and Copenhagen performed highly; Chinese cities were also strongly represented with Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Shanghai and Beijing all rated for green finance penetration.

Paris scored the highest for the centre most cited to become more significant in green finace over the next two to three years, followed by Frankfurt and New York.

The survey data provided 1,790 rating from 337 experts over a two month period from December 2017-February 2018. The survey will continue to run online and sampled every six months in future editions of the index.

Respondents were most interested in green bonds and renewable energy as areas of investment, followed by sustainable infrastructure investment and energy efficiency. However, divesting from fossil fuels, carbon disclosure and green insurance showed the least amount of interest.

In addition, the two main drivers behind sustainable finance were seen to be the enabling policy framework in place, taking in tax incentives, mandatory disclosure, and technological change; secondly, demand from investors, climate change, public awareness, and infrastructure investment.

Dr. Simon Zadek, Co-Director, UN Environment Inquiry into the Design of a Sustainable Financial System commented: “Ratings and indexes are important instruments to enable effective communication of relative and absolute progress, as well as encouraging a race to the top, and a healthy debate of what constitutes success and how it can best be measured. In this spirit, Finance Watch and Z/Yen have taken us all to the next level in providing us with the first globally applicable index of developments in greening the world's financial centres”.

Professor Michael Mainelli, Executive Chairman of Z/Yen, added: “The core of the GGFI is a perception survey which observes and promotes change where it matters most – in people’s minds. The more we can get people talking about a sustainable transition, the quicker it will happen. The high level of interest in GGFI 1 is a step in that direction.”

Green Finance Penetration


Green Finance Quality

Source: Finance Watch, Z/Yen

Read more: London leads new global green finance rankings

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations in 2015 and adopted by all 193 countries of the UN General Assembly.

Their broad and bold aims target everything from climate action to clean water, from good health to gender equality, with a date of 2030 to achieve them.

These ‘global goals’ are important for the UN and member states to achieve, and their feet will be held to the fire when 2030 comes around. But should they matter to anyone in the private sector, or investment community?

Speaking at the Sustainable Investment Forum in Paris last week, Eric Usher, head of the UN Environment’s Finance Initiative (UNEP-FI), said that the SDGs have “come forward very quickly, faster than I would have thought”.

“All of a sudden it is something that everybody is talking about. We thought it was something for governments to talk about, but it just so happens that the private sector…actually do see it as a framework that is potentially investable”.

UNEP-FI’s own work estimates that the world will need to find roughly $6 trillion dollars a year from now until 2030 to achieve the goals, but that half of that is flowing already. Of that half, they think that 60 percent is already coming from the private sector.

The emergence of an SDG market is also essential, according to Usher, if we are going to “chip away” at some of the more difficult goals.

Major institutions are already getting involved in helping finance the SDGs, either directly, or indirectly. BNP Paribas, for example, assessed that 15 percent of its loans worldwide are going towards supporting the goals, a huge amount.

But as the panellists at the Forum made clear, it’s not something that boards or clients can easily see as part of their problem. And what’s more, not all of the SDGs are equally actionable (compare clean energy with conserving the oceans), and investing in some might even prevent others from being advanced.

A basic question asked during the talk was simply what do we mean by an SDG investment? Classifying industries and sectors by how much they will contribute to the goals is a start. “We found 2,000 stocks with positive impact potential, plus another 2,000 with question marks”, said Willem Schramade, who has worked on a database of sustainable equities at NN Investment Partners.

“The good news is that these companies tend to be more profitable with better growth options”, he added.

Another way towards making the SDGs a more attractive investment prospect is to encourage greater disclosure from companies, in the same vein as climate risk.

Wim Van Hyfte, Global Head of Responsible Investments at Candriam, commented: “If we impose some kind of reporting system on: how do you contribute to society…how do contribute to equality…When these things become measurable, they become manageable. And then investors can then price it”.

It was agreed that for the SDGs to be realised a change of philosophy was needed within the financial sector. To look more at long-term benchmarking of investments over short-termism.

Gerben-Jan Gerbrandy, a Dutch Member of the European Parliament, concluded: “We cannot have economic growth and poverty reduction in the future if we don’t form sustainable economies. And everything else with the SDGs comes from that broader perspective”.

Read more: How investable are the Sustainable Development...

The National Hockey League (NHL) is building on its strong environmental reputation by dedicating an entire month to green initiatives.

Since 2010, the professional ice hockey league has run its ‘NHL Green’ campaign, which usually takes place over one week. This year, the organisation has decided to up the ante and promote its many sustainable projects over the whole of March.

As part of the month, it is encouraging fans and clubs to promote ways to be more environmentally friendly.

The NHL, and its 31 clubs, are members of the Green Sports Alliance, a non-profit organisation based in the US city of Portland. It was worked closely with the NGO to transform the way clubs operate so they are aware of environmental and climate change considerations.

From energy needs to food waste, the NHL is dedicated to moving towards sustainable development. For example, over the past eight years, it has managed to offset 126,000 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent through forestry, landfill and composting projects.

Its successful Gallons for Goals programme promises to restore 1,000 gallons of water to a critical river for every goal scored. The project has so far helped to restore over 88 million gallons of water to streams in North America.

100 percent of the NHL’s energy use in the past season has been matched through the purchase of renewable energy certificates. This amounted to 235,500 megawatt hours of clean electricity, making it one of the largest users of green power in North America.

       The NHL is engaging fans using the #NHLGreen hashtag throughout March

Green Sports Alliance Executive Director Justin J. Zeulner, recently told reporters that: "Imagine if all sports participated in the support and the advancement of renewable power in North America? The NHL has already proven that's possible".

"What can be inspired by being one of the largest users of green power in the US is astonishing. So we're looking to see if all sport can join the NHL and their leadership in this space to advance that here in the United States”, he added.

The National Football League has similarly taken on the challenge with a host of new sustainable projects underway and bearing fruit. This year’s Super Bowl, for example, was the most sustainable event in the tournament’s history.

Photo Credit: pointnshoot/Flickr

Read more: NHL skating on thick ice with month-long...

“Climate is not priced”, said Amundi’s Frederic Samama at a sustainable finance conference in Paris this week.

He was echoing the sentiments of many within the financial sector who care about acting on climate, but may not have the tools to do so.

Olivier Rousseau, Executive Director at the French pension fund FRR, also came out in favour, stating during a talk that we should use pricing as the “quintessential market tool”.

A carbon price is, of course, just one of the possible tools on the table when financial institutions look to the risks and opportunities posed by climate change to their businesses.

Mr Samama was one of the financial leaders discussing the issue at the forum who are actively incorporating environmental, social and governance (ESG) into their investments. But it was pointing out by Eva Halvarsson, CEO at AP2, a major Swedish pension fund, that 1,000s of other funds “haven’t looked at this issue”. Thinking about climate is not something that investors are used to doing, or necessarily know how to do.

Some investors are at an early stage of educating themselves, and colleagues, as to what opportunities are out there, but more crucially what the impact of climate change will be on their portfolios.

Antoni Ballabriga, who heads up Spanish giant BBVA’s responsible business division highlighted the work of the Taskforce for Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) in raising investor awareness on the issue. He said the Taskforce’s work, led by Bank of England’s Governor, Mark Carney, was “the future of climate disclosure, including for banks, but it is complex”.

The TCFD’s objective is essentially to increase transparency among investors and insurers so that climate change can be better priced by the market. But it also highlights the many opportunities acting early can provide: huge new markets in clean technologies, stronger resilience against climate shocks, and the variety of new financial products now on offer.

For BBVA’s part, it is becoming much more active in the sector, leading with the announcement this month of its “Pledge 2025”. The plan aims to align the bank’s future operations with the Paris Agreement and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. It intends to spend €100 billion over the next eight years on “green finance, sustainable infrastructures, social entrepreneurship and financial inclusion”, according to the Pledge.

It is moves like this which will help motivate the large part of the financial sector which hasn’t done enough, or anything, on climate. While sustainable finance is growing at a rapid rate, financial actors need to act quicker to protect themselves, and others, against the multitude of risks climate change poses.

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Introduction to the TCFD Recommendations from Secretariat TCFD

Photo Credit: kloniwotski/Flickr

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